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Novel inhibitors of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

TitleNovel inhibitors of mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsOrr AL, Ashok D, Sarantos MR, Ng R, Shi T, Gerencser AA, Hughes RE, Brand MD
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue2
Paginatione89938
Date Published2014
ISSN1932-6203
KeywordsAmides, Animals, Benzimidazoles, Enzyme Inhibitors, Fluorescence, Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+), Inhibitory Concentration 50, Mice, Mitochondrial Membranes, Models, Biological, Molecular Structure, Muscle, Skeletal, Structure-Activity Relationship, Succinates
Abstract

Mitochondrial sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) is a ubiquinone-linked enzyme in the mitochondrial inner membrane best characterized as part of the glycerol phosphate shuttle that transfers reducing equivalents from cytosolic NADH into the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Despite the widespread expression of mGPDH and the availability of mGPDH-null mice, the physiological role of this enzyme remains poorly defined in many tissues, likely because of compensatory pathways for cytosolic regeneration of NAD⁺ and mechanisms for glycerol phosphate metabolism. Here we describe a novel class of cell-permeant small-molecule inhibitors of mGPDH (iGP) discovered through small-molecule screening. Structure-activity analysis identified a core benzimidazole-phenyl-succinamide structure as being essential to inhibition of mGPDH while modifications to the benzimidazole ring system modulated both potency and off-target effects. Live-cell imaging provided evidence that iGPs penetrate cellular membranes. Two compounds (iGP-1 and iGP-5) were characterized further to determine potency and selectivity and found to be mixed inhibitors with IC₅₀ and K(i) values between ∼1-15 µM. These novel mGPDH inhibitors are unique tools to investigate the role of glycerol 3-phosphate metabolism in both isolated and intact systems.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0089938
Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID24587137
PubMed Central IDPMC3933693
Grant ListR01 AG033542 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
RL1 GM084432 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
TL1 AG032116 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States