Identification of cathepsin B as a mediator of neuronal death induced by Abeta-activated microglial cells using a functional genomics approach.

TitleIdentification of cathepsin B as a mediator of neuronal death induced by Abeta-activated microglial cells using a functional genomics approach.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsGan L, Ye S, Chu A, Anton K, Yi S, Vincent VA, von Schack D, Chin D, Murray J, Lohr S, Patthy L, Gonzalez-Zulueta M, Nikolich K, Urfer R
JournalJ Biol Chem
Date Published2004 Feb 13
KeywordsAlzheimer Disease, Amyloid beta-Peptides, Animals, Calcium-Binding Proteins, Cathepsin B, Cathepsin L, Cathepsins, Cell Death, Cell Line, Cells, Cultured, Culture Media, Serum-Free, Cysteine Endopeptidases, DNA, Complementary, Electron Transport Complex IV, Gene Library, Genome, Inflammation, Mice, Microfilament Proteins, Microglia, Neurons, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Peptide Fragments, Peptides, Rats, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, RNA, RNA, Small Interfering, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2, Transfection, Up-Regulation

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, dystrophic neurites, and reactive glial cells. Activated microglia are found to be intimately associated with senile plaques and may play a central role in mediating chronic inflammatory conditions in Alzheimer's disease. Activation of cultured murine microglial BV2 cells by freshly sonicated Abeta42 results in the secretion of neurotoxic factors that kill primary cultured neurons. To understand molecular pathways underlying Abeta-induced microglial activation, we analyzed the expression levels of transcripts isolated from Abeta42-activated BV2 cells using high density filter arrays. The analysis of these arrays identified 554 genes that are transcriptionally up-regulated by Abeta42 in a statistically significant manner. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was used to confirm the regulation of a subset of genes, including cysteine proteases cathepsin B and cathepsin L, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2, cytochrome c oxidase, and allograft inflammatory factor 1. Small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of the cathepsin B gene in Abeta-activated BV2 cells diminished the microglial activation-mediated neurotoxicity. Moreover, CA-074, a specific cathepsin B inhibitor, also abolished the neurotoxic effects caused by Abeta42-activated BV2 cells. Our results suggest an essential role for secreted cathepsin B in neuronal death mediated by Abeta-activated inflammatory response.

Alternate JournalJ. Biol. Chem.
PubMed ID14612454